Last updated: 09 March 2022
Here is detailed information on current evidence for direct and indirect health impacts, and social and economic impacts, of COVID-19.
You can find explanatory detail on the evidence for each impact, the data sources and (where applicable) methodology for this evidence, and any caveats that should be taken into account when interpreting or using these figures.
You can also find a list of key dates on the homepage.
The latest modelled estimate for the R value in Scotland was between 0.9 and 1.1.
The latest modelled estimate for the R value for Scotland, as of 15 February 2022, was between 0.9 and 1.1. This is unchanged since last week. These figures are based on data to 28 February 2022 and were published on 3 March 2022. R is an indicator that lags by two to three weeks and therefore should not be expected to reflect recent fluctuations.
For the number of infectious people to fall we need to keep the R number consistently below 1. A sustained increase above 1 indicates exponential growth in the number of cases, leading to increased hospitalisations and deaths, and causing very significant harm to Scotland’s health, society and economy should prevalence be at an elevated level.
This is why it is important to remain vigilant and respond quickly to any outbreaks and increases in cases. The R number can be thought of as the average number of people that each infected person passes the virus on to.
Source: Scottish Government
Methodology: Prior to 26 July 2021, the consensus was agreed by SAGE. The consensus has since been agreed by UKHSA.
The latest modelled estimate for the incidence of new daily infections in Scotland was between 246 and 526 new infections per 100,000 people.
The latest modelled estimate for COVID-19 incidence for Scotland, as of 15 February 2022, was between 246 and 526 new daily infections per 100,000 people which equates to between 13,400 and 28,800 people becoming infected each day. These figures are based on data to 28 February 2022 and were published on 3 March 2022.
This indicator was not available before 12 August 2020.
The various groups which report to the Scientific Pandemic Influenza Group on Modelling (SPI-M) use different sources of data in their models to produce estimates of incidence. The figures here show SPI-M’s consensus view across these methods.
Source: Scottish Government
Methodology: SPI-M Consensus
The PHS case data presented below now includes both new infections and possible reinfections. Please see the methodology section for more information.
Average daily cases by specimen date (including reinfections) have increased in the latest week, after a period of slow decrease since mid-January. There were 7,563 average daily cases in the week to 3 March 2022, compared to 6,473 in the week to 24 February.
The Office for National Statistics Covid-19 Infection Survey (CIS) provides an alternative source of positivity data to the case data presented in the cases chart and described below. The survey now indicates an estimated 1 in 19 people (95% credible interval: 1 in 20 to 1 in 17) would have tested positive for coronavirus in Scotland in the latest week 20 to 26 February 2022. This equates to around 280,500 people (95% credible interval: 251,800 to 311,900) or 5.33% (95% credible interval: 4.78% to 5.93%) of the population living in private residential households in Scotland. The CIS also indicates that the percentage of people testing positive for COVID-19 continued to increase in the most recent week to 26 February 2022.
There were over 300 7-day average daily cases of COVID-19 throughout much of April 2020, during the first lockdown. Cases then declined and by early July 2020 there were fewer than 10 7-day average cases, even in the context of increased testing. Cases then rose, reaching over 1,328 7-day average cases on 25 October 2020. Regional restrictions were introduced on 9 October 2020; 7-day average cases then decreased to 779 on 4 December 2020.
Average daily cases then increased to 2,350 cases on 8 January 2021. After the second lockdown began on 5 January 2021, cases decreased to 167 7-day average cases on 4 May 2021. There were two further peaks in cases on 3 July 2021 (3,345 7-day average cases) and on 6 September 2021 (6,500 7-day average cases). Cases then declined throughout September and fluctuated throughout October and November.
On 30 November 2021, there was the first confirmed case of the Omicron variant in Scotland. Average daily Covid-19 cases then rapidly increased to the highest peak since the start of the pandemic of 17,986 average cases on 3 January 2022. There was a sharp drop in average case rates after 5 January 2022 when changes to testing policy came into effect. The rate of decrease slowed from mid-January, but showed an increase in the most recent week.
The World Health Organisation recommends looking at several indicators when considering whether the epidemic is controlled. This data is needed to keep track of new positive cases and to monitor the progression and impact of the virus in Scotland.
These figures will be an underestimate of the number of infections. Not everyone with COVID-19 will display symptoms and not all those with symptoms will be tested.
While the number of positive cases is higher in later peaks than in the April 2020 peak, a greater number of tests are now being completed as we now have additional facilities for sampling and testing. In early January 2021 an average of over 150,000 tests have been completed per week, compared to 10,000 to 20,000 tests per week in April 2020. In addition, NHS testing capacity has increased significantly with the opening of 2 of the 3 regional testing hubs. Scotland now has capacity to process over 65,000 samples per day as committed to in the Testing Strategy.
Scotland is participating in the Covid-19 Infection Survey which is being conducted by the Office for National Statistics (ONS) and the University of Oxford, on behalf of the UK and Scottish Government. The Four Harms dashboard will continue to include data from the Covid-19 Infection Survey which is unaffected by testing policy changes. The survey invites private residential households in the UK to test for Covid-19 in order to establish the number of people that test positive for Covid-19 infection symptomatically and asymptomatically, average number of new cases per week and the number of people who test positive for antibodies. This study does not rely on self-reporting of lateral LFDs, and it also picks up asymptomatic infection, meaning it is a reliable and consistent measure to understand the infection levels in the private residential households.
Methodology: Cases are reported by specimen date i.e. the date the sample was collected from the patient. Since the time taken to test samples and report the results varies, there is a reporting delay in testing results by specimen date. Therefore, data carried out in the most recent two to three days will be incomplete. As such, data for the latest three days is not reported in this dashboard but can be found on the NHSScotland open data platform. Positive tests during the most recent 10-day period may also be subject to change.
Since 10 February 2022, Public Health Scotland (PHS) has been using the new case definition of those who have recorded a first positive PCR or an LFD (lateral flow device), following the revised Scottish Government testing strategy that was implemented on 5 January 2022. Cases are reported against the first positive specimen date from PCR or LFD. Daily case figures have been updated to reflect the new case definition.
More information about these changes to reporting on Covid-19 cases following the revised testing strategy can be found in this Scottish Government blog post. Further detail on enhancements to COVID-19 reporting following the change in case definition can be found in this PHS blog post.
Since 1 March 2022, PHS has been reporting on reinfections. Previously COVID-19 cases were based on an individual’s first positive (PCR or LFD) test result only. The new daily case calculation includes both new infections and possible reinfections. Possible reinfections are defined as individuals who tests positive, by PCR or LFD, 90 days or more after their last positive test. The change has been applied retrospectively to cases reported since the beginning of the pandemic. More information about this change to COVID-19 reporting can be found in this PHS blog post.
Up until 14 June 2020, these figures were based on tests carried out through NHS Scotland labs only. From 15 June 2020 they also include numbers of people tested through the UK Government (UKG) testing programme, which were not previously available to Scottish Government. This caused a jump in the cumulative data series when the backlog was reported on 15 June 2020.
In the week 28 February to 6 March 2022, there were 110 deaths involving COVID-19, an increase of 30 on the previous week.
Deaths involving COVID-19 have increased from the previous week (21 to 27 February 2022), with 110 deaths involving COVID-19 in the most recent week (28 February to 6 March 2022).
The World Health Organisation recommends looking at several indicators when considering whether the epidemic is controlled. One of these is a decline in the number of deaths among confirmed and probable cases at least for the last 3 weeks.
As of 6 March 2022, there have been a total of 13,429 deaths registered where COVID-19 was mentioned on the death certificate. The first mention of COVID-19 in a registered death certificate was the week beginning 16 March 2020. In the most recent week (28 February to 6 March 2022), there were 110 deaths where COVID-19 was mentioned on the death certificate. 69 deaths took place in a hospital, 7 at home or in a non-institutional setting, 34 in care homes, and 0 in other institutions.
Source: National Records of Scotland
Methodology: The figures in this publication focus on deaths where COVID-19 was mentioned on the death certificate (either as a confirmed or suspected cause of death).
Average daily hospital admissions have levelled off in the latest month with 101 average admissions in the week ending 25 February 2022.
The average number of COVID-19 hospital admissions per day is currently lower than the first peak of over 180 in the first week of April 2020. Hospital admissions decreased throughout November 2020 and remained relatively stable throughout December 2020. From 25 December 2020 to 12 January 2021, admissions increased sharply to the highest rate since the start of the pandemic of over 200 average daily admission.
Average daily COVID-19 hospital admissions then decreased to a low of 9 in the week to 4 May 2021 before peaking again at 91 in the week to 13 July 2021 and 166 in the week ending 13 September 2021.
Hospital admissions fluctuated throughout October 2021 and decreased throughout November 2021. Average daily hospital admissions rapidly increased throughout late-December 2021 and early-January 2022 to a peak of 168 average admissions on 10 January 2022. Average admissions then decreased until late-January and have levelled off in the latest month with 101 average admissions in the week to 25 February 2022.
COVID-19 hospital admission numbers give an indication of the impacts the virus is having on the NHS. This is an important measure for tracking the progress of the virus and helps to assess ongoing COVID-19 and non-COVID-19 pressures on the NHS.
COVID-19 related admissions have been identified as the following: a patient’s first positive test for COVID-19 up to 14 days prior to admission to hospital, on the day of their admission or during their stay in hospital. In line with the latest case definition, this includes COVID-19 patients who have tested positive using an LFD or PCR test.
Source: Public Health Scotland
Methodology: Additional breakdowns (e.g. by Health Board) are available via the referenced source.
Methodology for incorporating reinfections in hospital admissions data is still being finalised but will be included in one of the next updates.
A&E attendance levels have been relatively stable in the last month.
A&E attendance levels decreased to 41% of normal pre-COVID-19 levels in the week ending 29 March 2020. A&E attendances then increased to around 85% of normal levels throughout August and September. From mid-September to the beginning of February 2021, A&E attendance levels decreased to 63% of normal levels in the week ending 7 February 2021. A&E attendance levels then increased to 101% of normal levels in the week ending 20 June 2021, and there was a similar peak in late-August.
A&E attendance remained relatively stable between mid-October and mid-December. Then there was a drop in attendance in the week ending 26 December 2021, likely due to a change in behaviour over Christmas. A&E attendance increased slightly in late-January. However in the last month, it has remained relatively stable at around 91% of normal attendance levels.
Pre-COVID-19 A&E attendance is calculated using an average of 2018 and 2019 attendance.
A&E attendance numbers give an indication of the wider impacts COVID-19 is having across the NHS.
The 'NHS is Open' campaign was launched on 24 April 2020 to encourage members of the public not to delay seeking medical advice.
Source: Public Health Scotland
Methodology: Does not include attendances to Minor Injury Units. Data from Public Health Scotland. Additional breakdowns (e.g. by Health Board) are available via the referenced source. From October, this data will be updated once per month.
Deaths are 3% above average levels for this time of year.
Deaths were above average in week 9 of 2022 for the first time in 9 weeks.
Excess deaths are the total number of deaths registered in a week minus the average number of deaths registered in the same week over the previous five years (excluding 2020). Measuring excess deaths allows us to track seasonal influenza, pandemics and other public health threats. Excess deaths include deaths caused by COVID-19 and those resulting from other causes. In this chart, excess deaths are shown by the difference between the grey line, which shows the weekly average for deaths over the previous 5 years (excluding 2020) and the blue line showing total deaths in 2020, 2021 and 2022.
The five-year average of 2016, 2017, 2018, 2019, 2021 will be used to measure excess deaths in 2022 as including 2020 will inflate the five year average due to the high number of deaths in Spring 2020.
The other blue line on this chart is labelled ‘COVID-19 deaths’ - this shows weekly totals for the number of COVID-19 deaths. Presenting this alongside ‘total deaths’ for the same week shows the extent to which COVID-19 deaths have contributed to the number of excess deaths, and the extent to which the number of excess deaths may be attributable to other causes or indirectly caused by COVID-19. In the week ending 26 April 2020, there were 663 COVID-19 deaths that contributed to an overall total of 1,836 deaths. The 5 year weekly average tells us that we would typically expect 1,087 deaths in that week – there is a difference (or ‘excess’) of 749, of which 663 were related to COVID-19.
Source: National Records of Scotland
Methodology: Excess deaths are the total number of deaths registered in a week in 2021 and 2022 minus the average number of deaths registered in the same week over the period including years 2016, 2017, 2018, 2019, 2021.
Emergency hospital admission levels have decreased in the last month. Meanwhile, planned hospital admission levels have fluctuated.
The number of emergency admissions dropped to 60% of normal pre-COVID-19 levels in the week ending 29 March 2020. Emergency admissions then increased to a peak of 95% of normal levels in the week ending 23 August 2020, before decreasing to around 76% of normal levels at the end of December. Emergency admissions then increased to 102% of normal levels in mid-June and remained at 90% to 100% of normal levels until mid-December. The number of emergency admissions fluctuated over the Christmas period which has also been seen in previous years. Emergency admissions then increased during January and, in the latest three weeks, emergency admissions have slightly dropped to 88% of normal levels.
The number of planned hospital admissions dropped to 27% of normal pre-COVID-19 levels in the week ending 19 April 2020. The number of planned admissions increased after that and then remained around 70% to 80% of normal levels from September to late December. The subsequent drop in planned admissions over the festive period was in line with previous years. Planned hospital admissions then decreased to under 60% of normal levels from late January to early February 2021. They have since fluctuated with a slight drop in late-September and a peak of 83% of normal levels in the week ending 21 November 2021. The drop in planned admissions over the festive period was again in line with previous years.
Hospital admission numbers give an indication of the wider impacts COVID-19 is having across the NHS. All elective procedures were suspended when lockdown began. The 'NHS is Open' campaign was launched on 24 April to encourage members of the public not to delay seeking medical advice.
Public Health Scotland publishes a dashboard which presents more information on the wider impacts COVID-19 is having on the health care system. It provides information on hospital admissions, unscheduled care and volume of calls to NHS24. You can view the data presented by age, sex, deprivation quintile, specialty, elective versus emergency and by geographical location.
Source: NHSScotland open data platform
Methodology: Data from Public Health Scotland. Additional breakdowns (e.g. by Health Board) are available via the referenced source.
From October 2021, this data will be updated once per month.
A substantial minority are reluctant to contact a GP practice at the moment for immediate non-COVID-19 health concerns.
The proportion of people who agree that they would avoid contacting a GP practice at the moment for immediate non-COVID-19 health concerns is 21%.
There has been a reluctance from people to seek non-COVID-19 healthcare treatment during the COVID-19 pandemic. Evidence suggests that since the end of October 2021 between 21-33% of people agreed or strongly agreed that they would avoid contacting a GP practice at the moment even if they had an immediate medical concern (not related to Coronavirus). Responses were broadly similar across different groups of the population.
Methodology: Web panel survey. Total sample size is c. 1000 adults each week. Fieldwork undertaken from 21-23 April onwards, weekly. This question was included from 27-28 October, replacing a previous question asking whether people would avoid the GP/hospital. The figures have been weighted and are representative of all Scottish adults (aged 18+).
The percentage of school openings with pupils not in school because of COVID-19 related reasons decreased between late-January and mid-February, before levelling off in the latest two weeks.
Provisional figures for Wednesday 2 March 2022 show that 90.1% of school openings had pupils attending, either physically or from home. The percentage of school openings with pupils absent for non-COVID-19 reasons was 7.5% and for COVID-19 related reasons this was 2.5%. Scottish Government Education Analytical Services publishes a dashboard which contains additional information on school attendance and absence.
In response to the ongoing coronavirus (COVID-19) outbreak, the Scottish Government asked education and childcare settings to re-open only for vulnerable children and children of key workers following the Christmas break in January 2021.
From Monday 22 February 2021 all children in P1-P3 in mainstream and special schools were to return to school. Some Senior Phase (S4-S6) pupils were also due to return to school on a part-time basis to attend practical lessons.
From Monday 15 March 2021 all children in Primary school were to return to school, with all Secondary pupils returning on a part-time basis from this date. Data shown on the graph for this period relate to Primary school pupils only. From Monday 12 April 2021 all pupils returned to school on a full-time basis.
After the summer holiday 2021, the majority of children and young people had returned to full time education by the week ending 20 August 2021. Throughout October schools were on half-term holidays, and testing rates in children were lower during this period.
October half-term dates varied across the country with most schools closed from 11 to 22 October 2021. The period highlighted on the chart (4 - 29 October 2021) covers the full period when at least some schools were closed for half-term. No school was closed for the full four weeks.
Christmas holiday dates varied across the country with some schools closing from 17 December, but most schools closing the following week. All schools were closed to pupils from 24 December 2021 to 4 January 2022, with some re-opening from Wednesday 5 January 2022. All schools were re-open to pupils from Tuesday 11 January 2022. The period highlighted on the chart (20 December 2021 to 10 January 2022) covers the full period when at least some schools were closed for the Christmas holidays.
Methodology: This information is based on Local Authority schools only (primary, secondary and special schools). Figures for the most recent week are provisional. Figures for previous weeks are final.
Scottish Welfare Fund crisis grant applications increased by 16% in December 2021 compared to December 2020.
The Scottish Welfare Fund is administered by local authorities. Crisis grants aim to help people who are in crisis because of a disaster or an emergency.
Since March 2020 the impacts of COVID-19 have affected Crisis Grant application numbers. Applications increased rapidly in March and peaked in April 2020. After falling between May and July, applications increased again between August and October 2020. It is likely that increases were due to financial hardship resulting from COVID-19. 2021 has seen declines from a peak in January, but a short resurgence of applications occurred in June, which has been replicated in November and December. There were 16% more Crisis Grant applications in December 2021, compared to December 2020.
Source: Scottish Government
Methodology: Figures are collected from local authorities at the end of each month and combined to Scotland level.
Recorded crime in January 2022 was higher than January 2021, but lower than January 2020.
Police recorded crime was 10% higher in January 2022 than the same month of 2021 (when pandemic restrictions were in place), but 3% lower than January 2020 (for which there was no pandemic or restrictions on movement).
Changes in police recorded crime is one indicator of the impact that the COVID-19 restrictions are having across society. Generally across the pandemic recorded crime has been lower than the year prior (2019-20). Some caution is advised before attributing all differences to COVID-19. Longer term trends, which existed before the pandemic, may remain a factor in some types of offending recorded by the police.
Methodology: The total figure for recorded crime excludes the new crimes being recorded under the recently enacted coronavirus legislation. See the source publication for more information.
Around half of people report feeling lonely.
In Ipsos MORI surveys carried out between May and July 2020 between 53-59% felt lonely some/most/almost all or all of the time. This indicator is now measured by YouGov surveys with the same question. Between July and the present it has been between 44% and 54%. Most recently, at 15 to 16 February 2022 it was 48%.
The lockdown period has been associated with higher than usual levels of reported loneliness. The majority of people report feeling lonely at least some of the time in the previous week. This persisted even when restrictions on social gatherings were eased slightly. People aged 18-44 are more likely to have felt lonely at least some of the time than those aged 45+.
Methodology: Web panel survey. Total sample size is c. 1000 adults each week. Fieldwork undertaken from 28 July onwards, weekly. The figures have been weighted and are representative of all Scottish adults (aged 18+) in terms of age, gender, social class, region and level of education . Previous trends on this measure were taken from Ipsos Mori surveys, which had a smaller sample size (c500-650) and were representative of Scottish adults (aged 16-74) in terms of age and gender. In July the questions were transferred to a YouGov survey to consolidate our data collection across Scottish Government teams and research needs.
There are consistently high levels of trust in the Scottish Government.
Since mid-May 2020, the proportion of people who said they trusted the Scottish Government to work in Scotland’s best interests, in Ipsos MORI surveys was between 73% and 79%. This is now measured by YouGov survey using the same question. During the pre-election period (March 2021 onwards) this question is not asked. It is currently 61%.
Evidence suggests consistently high levels of trust in the Scottish Government which has decreased slightly since mid- march, around 60% people have said they trust the Scottish Government a great deal/quite a lot to work in Scotland’s best interests.
Methodology: Web panel survey. Total sample size is c. 1000 adults each week. Fieldwork undertaken from 28 July onwards, weekly. The figures have been weighted and are representative of all Scottish adults (aged 18+) in terms of age, gender, social class, region and level of education. Previous trends on this measure were taken from Ipsos Mori surveys, which had a smaller sample size (c500-650) and were representative of Scottish adults (aged 16-74) in terms of age and gender. In July the questions were transferred to a YouGov survey to consolidate our data collection across Scottish Government teams and research needs.
1 in 5 employees are worried about the threat COVID-19 poses to their job.
People who are employed were asked how worried they are about the impact of COVID-19 on their job. 19% report a perceived 'high' or 'very high' threat to their job.
The measures introduced to control the spread of COVID-19 have involved the shutdown of many parts of the economy. Recent waves of data collection show that a fifth perceive a 'high' or 'very high' threat to their job.
Methodology: Web panel survey. Total sample size is c. 1000 adults each week. Fieldwork undertaken from 14 July onwards, weekly. The figures have been weighted and are representative of all Scottish adults (aged 18+) in terms of age, gender, social class, region and level of education . We previously presented analysis on a similar measure from a different source. Since the sources are not directly comparable we are only showing newer data from YouGov.
The number of people saying they are concerned about people contracting or spreading COVID-19 on public transport remains high.
There has been a consistently high number of people saying they are 'very' or 'fairly' concerned about people contracting or spreading COVID-19 on public transport. This peaked during the inital lockdown period in 2020 at 82%. At the most recent measure, collected during late October/early Novermber 2021, 66% of people agreed with this.
There is a high level of concern about people contracting or spreading COVID-19 when using public transport, and about being able to observe physical distancing on public transport. Women demonstrate consistently higher concern about people contracting or spreading the virus on public transport than men - this may reflect that women typically have less access to a car than men, and are more likely to be more reliant on public transport, particularly buses. Some people have more access to alternatives to public transport than others. Households with a higher income are more likely to have access to a car or a van. People from lower income households are more reliant on public transport and active travel e.g. walking. Considering whether a journey is necessary, whether active travel is an option, and whether a journey could be made on public transport at non-peak times of day, could reduce the risk posed to those who need to use public transport at specific times.
Methodology: Telephone survey
Business turnover in March 2021 is at a similar level to the same month last year.
Manufacturing and Services
In March 2021, Scotland's business turnover index was 49.7. This indicates that, on balance, turnover is at a similar level in real terms to March 2020.
It should be noted that this will still be lower than pre-pandemic levels in February 2020, due to the sharp drop that occurred in March 2020 when the first lockdown began.
Source: Scottish Government
Methodology: The Monthly Business Turnover Index is an experimental statistics release. It is based on data from the ONS Monthly Business Survey and Retail Sales Inquiry. It reports the net balance of firms reporting increasing or decreasing turnover, in real terms, compared to 12 months ago. Values below 50 indicate that more companies are showing decreased turnover than increased turnover.
Scotland's GDP fell by 0.4% in December 2021.
Scotland's GDP fell 0.4% in December 2021 and is 0.1% above its pre-pandemic level in February 2020.
Latest data shows Scotland's GDP fell by 0.4% in December 2021. Within this, output in the Services sector was flat (0.0% growth), and growth in the Construction sector (1.9%) was offset by falls in the Production sector (-3.3%). In December 2021, Scotland's GDP was 0.1% above its pre-pandemic level in February 2020, having been 22.5% below in April 2020 during the national lockdown.
Source: Scottish Government
Methodology: Gross Domestic Product (GDP) is the broadest and most widely used measure of economic activity. Changes in GDP over time are estimated using information about the output of each industry across all sectors of the economy. Monthly GDP estimates are experimental statistics, which means that they are still in development but have been released to enable their use at an early stage. All results are provisional and subject to relatively high levels of uncertainty. Further information can be found at www.gov.scot/gdp.
Scotland's unemployment rate was 4.1% in October to December 2021.
In October to December 2021, Scotland's unemployment rate was 4.1%. This remained unchanged from the previous quarter and was down 0.5 percentage points over the year.
The unemployment rate continues to compare well against historical trends. Based on the Labour Force Survey, the unemployment rate for women is 3.6% and for men is 4.5%. Based on the Annual Population Survey, the unemployment rate for young people (16 to 24 years) is 10.4% in October 2020 - September 2021.
Source: Scottish Government
Methodology: The unemployment rate shows the proportion of the economically active population (age 16 years +) who are unemployed (seeking work and available to work).
Scotland's Claimant Count was 140,500 in January 2022.
In January 2022, Scotland's Claimant Count was 140,500. This decreased by 2.5% over the month and is 24.4% higher than the pre-pandemic level in February 2020.
The Claimant Count measures the number of people claiming benefits principally for the reason of being unemployed. In January 2022, Scotland's claimant count was 140,500.
Source: Scottish Government
Methodology: The Claimant Count data is experimental and includes those claimants of Universal Credit who are required to search for work, i.e. within the Searching for Work conditionality regime as defined by the Department for Work & Pensions, as well as all Jobseekers Allowance claimants.